An Introduction to Small-Angle Scattering (An Introduction to the Crystallographer's World)
By Hideki MATSUOKA
Affiliation: Department of Polymer Chemistry, Kyoto University
Address: Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
Fundamental aspects of small-angle scattering technique are duly explained from the very basic points for the beginners and newcommers of this useful technique to study the strucuture of "Vernachläsisgten Dimensionen".
Basic Designs of X-ray Small-Angle Scattering Instrumentation (An Introduction to the Crystallographer's World)
By Yoji INOKO
Affiliation: Division of Biophysical Engineering, Graduated School of Engineering Science, Osaka University
Address: Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan
In the last two decades many types of small-angle X-ray scattering cameras have been developed, including facilities for synchrotron sources. The fundamental requirement of such facilities is to provide X-ray beams of high flux and narrow angular width, which permit intensity measurements at smaller angles. Here the general principles of design and construction of laboratory instrumentation are described together with the definitions of some specific parameters.
Structural Studies and Development of Molecular Metals and Superconductors Based on Transition Metal Complexes (Review)
By Akiko KOBAYASHI
Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo
Address: Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
During the past three decades, the old image of molecular conductors has been changed completely. Nowadays, molecular metals are regarded as clean systems with well-defined Fermi surfaces. X-ray diffraction studies have made a great contribution to this progress. Here a brief survey of our structural studies and development of new molecular metals and superconductors is presented. The main topics are, (1) Peierls distorted structure of partially oxidized platinum complex, (2) discovery of metallic complexes without one-dimensional platinum chains, (3) designing analysis of the first molecular superconductor, (4) discovery of pure p-acceptor superconductors, (5) band structure and low temperature crystal structure analysis and (6) novel highly conducting transition metal complex with extended p-conjugated ligands.
Material Research and Crystal Chemistry for the Intermetallic Superconductor Related Materials (Article)
By Hijiri KITÔ
Affiliation: Materials Science Division, Electrotechnical Laboratory (E.T.L.)
Address: 1-1-4, Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568, Japan
On the idea of the material designing, we attempted to design a new crystal structure and succeeded to synthesize the new intermetallic compounds. A new family of the rare earth nickel boro-carbides (or boro-nitrides) and the present status of the material research for the intermetallic compounds has been reviewed.
Crystal Structure and Physical Properties in the Spin-Ladder Superconductor Sr14-xCaxCu24O41 (Article)
By Masaaki ISOBE1 and Eiji TAKAYAMA-MUROMACHI2
Affiliation: National Institute for Research in Inorganic Materials (NIRIM)
Address: 1-1, Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044, Japan
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com
The spin ladder system Sr14-xCaxCu24O41 is reviewed from the viewpoint of relations between the crystal structure and superconductivity under high pressure. The compound is a composite crystal, which consists of CuO2 1-D chain and Cu2O3 tow-leg ladder subsystems. As the interplay of the subsystems is increased with Ca substitution or pressurization, holes are removed from the 1-D chain to the ladder via locally formed apical oxygen bonds. Then, the superconductivity occurs owing to the hole doping into the ladder. The hole distribution, magnetic interaction, and electrical property of the normal state are also discussed in terms of the structural modulation.